Documents & Publications

FoF, FoF Day, presentation, summary

ISO, TC 261, standards

MESIC 2017, Scientific publication, UPV/EHU

CMH 21, Publication, Tecnalia, Ibarmia, UPV/EHU, Michelin

  • The objective of this work was to select the best material from Fe-, Ni- and Co-based alloy powder for coating, by Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) the filets of a hardened 42CrMoS4 extrusion screw without preheating process. Even though most of the articles recommended preheating the base material as a condition for a crack free coating, the time wasted in the process decrease the productivity and distortions can be also generated in the part. In this work, a comparison of the main characteristics of the coatings done on preheated and non-preheated base material has been made. The relationships between the relevant LMD parameters (feed rate, laser power, and powder feeding rate) and the main geometrical characteristics of a single clad (height, width, dilution, deposition rate, efficiency, etc.) were examined. In addition, different characteristics of overlapped clads in a preheated, non-preheated and a hardened base material have been also analyzed. All the study was made in the Ibarmia ZVH 45/1600 Add+Process hybrid machine with a high power Yb-Fiber laser (3 kW) and discrete coaxial LMD head. Coatings with thickness from 1.2 to 0.76 were created without cracks and other defects except in the case of Ni-based coating. The microstructural features of these coatings were studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties were determined using microhardness measurements and a pin on disk tribometer.
  • A comparison between a conventional AISI H13 hot stamping tool and a bimetallic tool consisting of an AISI 1045 core and a laser-deposited AISI H13 coating is performed. In order to analyze the performance of bimetallic tools, the material compatibility and quality of the coating are analyzed. Besides, the mechanical properties are evaluated and compared with those of the conventional tool, obtaining mechanically equivalent results. Nevertheless, the real conductivity of the laser deposited AISI H13 is found to be 16 % lower than the theoretical value. Hence, a thermal model of the hot stamping process is developed, and the performance of various coating thicknesses is evaluated. Results show that, in the present case study, an AISI 1045 tool with a 1 mm AISI H13 coating ensures the mechanical properties and reduces the cycle time by 44.5 % when compared to a conventional AISI H13 tool.
  • In this study, a manufacturing strategy, and guidelines for inclined and multilayered structures of variable thickness are presented, which are based on the results of an own-developed geometrical model that obtains both the coating thickness and dilution. This model is developed for the powder-fed directed energy deposition process (DED) and it only uses the DED single-track cladding characteristics (height, width, area, and dilution depth), the overlap percentage, and the laser head tilting-angle as inputs. As outputs, it calculates both the cladding geometry and the dilution area of the coating. This model for the Ni-based alloy 718 was improved, based on previous studies of the single clad working both vertically and at an inclined angle, adding the equations of the single clad characteristics with respect to the main process parameters. The strategy proposed in this paper for multilayered cladding consisted of both adding an extra clad at the edges of the layer and using a variable value of the overlap percentage between clads for geometric adaptations. With this strategy, the material deposition is more accurate than otherwise, and it shows stable growth. Manufacturing a multilayered wall of wider thicknesses at higher heights was utilized to validate the strategy.
  • With the development of the new concept of hybrid machine, which combines additive and subtractive manufacturing in the same machine, new opportunities for automation of applications such as the repairing of defective parts or theadditio n of coatings with specific properties are coming out. In these applications, the need for the use of measurement systems has been revealed, in order to know the real geometry of the parts. Among the different measurement systems, the structured light technology presents many advantages for this process: it is capable of measuring parts of different sizes and with low texture in a single capture, and additionally, the lighting conditions don’t affect to the measurement due to the camera has it’s own light source. In this article, different applications of structured light technology for hybrid manufacturing are presented. In addition, an example of the application of this technology is also described, which consists in the manufacturing of the coating of a hot stamping die. For this, the ZVH 45/1600 Add+Process hybrid machine from Ibarmia manufacturer has been employed.
  • Hybrid manufacturing processes that combine additive and machining operations are gaining relevance in modern industry thanks to the capability of building complex parts with minimal material and, many times, with process time reduction. Besides, as the additive and subtractive operations are carried out in the same machine, without moving the part, dead times are reduced and higher accuracies are achieved. However, it is not clear whether the direct material deposition after the machining operation is possible or intermediate cleaning stages are required because of the possible presence of residual cutting fluids. Therefore, different Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) tests are performed on a part impregnated with cutting fluid, both directly and after the removal of the coolant by techniques such as laser vaporizing and air blasting. The present work studies the influence of the cutting fluid in the LMD process and the quality of the resulting part. Resulting porosity is evaluated and it is concluded that if the part surface is not properly clean after the machining operation, deficient clad quality can be obtained in the subsequent laser additive operation.
  • geometry. In these cases, the use of discrete coaxial nozzles is recommended. With this type of nozzle, the powder can clog the internal tips of the nozzle streams due to an inappropriate shape, size distribution, humidity or temperature conditions of the powder particles during the deposition process. This undesired effect can be an opportunity depending on the combination of the activated powder tips for coating complex surfaces when the geometry of the substrate acts as a barrier for the powder stream. This work presents for first time the effect of the scanning direction and the stream clogging on the deposition process in terms of powder efficiency, Material Deposition Rate (MDR) and clad geometry and dimensions, when Alloy 718 is deposited by LMD using a four-stream discrete coaxial nozzle,

Deliverable, business models

  • The deliverable 1.3 titled “Report on New Business models for the use of PARADDISE solution” is focused on the potential exploitation of the global solution proposed in the PARADDISE project, as well as the commercialization of singular results of the different WPs. The deliverable include a short overview of the current technologies and the benchmarking analysis and specifications in comparison with PARADDISE solution. Finally, the deliverable presents the potential business models detected at the end of the T1.3.

structured light, hybrid technology

  • With the development of the new concept of hybrid machine, which combines additive and subtractive manufacturing in the same machine, new opportunities for automation of applications such as the repairing of defective parts or the addition of coatings with specific properties are coming out. In these applications, the need for the use of measuring systems has been revealed, in order to know the actual geometry of the parts. Among the different measurement systems, the structured light technology presents many advantages for this process: it is capable of measuring parts of different sizes and with low texture in a single measurement, and additionaly, the lighting conditions barely affect to the measurement. In this article, different applications of structured light technology for hybrid manufacturing are presented. In addition, an example of the application of this technology is also described, which consists in the manufacturing of the coating of a hot stamping die. For this, the ZVH 45/1600 Add+Process hybrid machine from Ibarmia manufacturer has been employed.

standards, AM, Deliverable

  • This document extends and updates the content and the scope of Deliverable D6.3 − Report on the business plan of ISO/TC 261 as well as on standards of other ISO and CEN TCs that are relevant for AM technology. In conformance with the commitment of the Description of Activities, PARADDISE project representatives are very actively participating to the work ISO/TC 261 Technical Committee including all its Working Groups and including a significant number of Joint ISO/TC 261 – ASTM F42 Groups. The PARADDISE project maintains a liaison with CEN/TC 438 Additive Manufacturing and is very actively participating to its works. The minutes of the 4th meeting of CEN/TC 438 propose the adoption of the PARADDISE project (and of the KRAKEN project) activities (outlined in Figure 1 of Chapter 3. of this document) as a valid approach to be applied by other EC co-founded research projects related to Additive Manufacturing.

coatings, LMD, LANE

LMD, AISI 304, steel, laser

  • The presented numerical model solves the heat and mass transfer equations in the Laser Metal Deposition process and based on the evolution of the thermal field predicts the grainsize, the resulting hardness and evaluates the pores formation probability in an AISI 304 stainless steel. For this purpose, in a first step, the model calculates the shape of the deposited material and the variations of the temperature field. In a second step, and based on the evolution of the thermal field, the model calculates the resulting hardness of the deposited material, the grainsize and the porosity formation probability after the deposition process. Numerical results are experimentally validated, and good agreement is obtained. Consequently, besides predicting the geometry of the resulting part and the evolution of the thermal field, the developed model enables to evaluate the quality of the deposited material. Therefore, the optimum process conditions and strategy when depositing AISI 304 stainless steel can be determined without initial trial-and-error tests.

Scientific publication, inco 718, LMD

  • Modern aerospace industry demands the union of different Inconel 718 parts ensuring the quality of the joint. Therefore, in the present work a novel fiber laser welding model that considers wobbling strategy is developed. The heat source model definition and solid-liquid phase change phenomena are taken into account as bead is considered liquid zone during the melting, getting a robust-but-simple tool for prediction of bead and heat affected zone geometries depending on process parameters. One of the main drawbacks is the maximum welded bead width, which is limited by the beam spot. In order to overcome this handicap, wobbling strategy allows covering a wider area by combining elliptical and linear motions. Optimal relation between these orbital and translation speeds is defined for minimum overlap among consecutive wobble rings. Likewise, temperature rise at welded joint is estimated by existing and modified heat source models after relying on experimental validation.

Scientific publication, LMD

  • The Laser Material Deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technique that has become one of the most noteworthy methods for coating and repairing components. It is also a key process in hybrid manufacturing systems that combine LMD and machining operations. One of the main difficulties of LMD is the large number of relevant parameters and the complex interdependencies that must be considered. Thus, process fitting is usually based on trial and error techniques. The present work proposes a series of developments based on the numerical modeling of the LMD process, with the aim of reducing the experimental tests to setup the process.

Porosity, LMD

  • The use of hybrid manufacturing processes that combine additive and machining operations is on increase and an example of it is the fact that the most advanced machine tool manufacturers have developed hybrid machines solutions. Nevertheless, cutting fluid required for machining operations can present several problems for the Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) process. In order to solve this issue, the present work evaluates the influence of the coolants in the LMD process from the point of view of pore generation and clad quality. For this purpose, several tests are performed on a part impregnated with cutting fluid, both directly and after the elimination of the fluid by means of different alternatives.

Scientific publication

  • Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) or laser cladding is a technology capable of coating, repairing and manufacturing components by injecting molten metal powder on a substrate. Some of the advantages of this technology are: wide range of materials available in powder, reduced thermal distortion, coatings and repaired parts of high quality. However, the biggest advantage can be its relative ease of implementation in a multiprocess machine tool and subsequent automatization. The supply of hybrid machines in the world market that implements the LMD process is increasing (IBARMIA, DMG MORI, MAZAK, OKUMA, etc...), making the production more flexible in a single machine and introducing this process in more applications and industrial sectors. However, hybridization also presents problems that are difficult to solve. Some of the most noteworthy are those associated with the use of powdered metallic material both from the point of view of the safety and hygiene of the operators and also of the waste management and integrity of the machine itself, being its most serious effects at lower efficiency of the process. In this article, the study of the efficiency of different LMD nozzles is addressed for the coating of a hardened steel using for it the hybrid multiprocess machine IBARMIA ZVH45 /1600 Add + process, with the aim of finding the most efficient and, therefore (the one that generates less waste) and which, in turn, offers good productivity.

Hybrid manufacturing, Machining, LMD, Inconel 718

  • Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing process that allows the manufacturing of near-net-shape products. This could mean significant savings in terms of materials and costs in the manufacturing of high-performance components for the aeronautical industry. In this work, an analysis of how the LMD processing of alloy 718 affects the final machining has been carried out. For this purpose, a comparative study has been done by means of the monitoring of the end milling process of a part manufactured by LMD and a rough-milled part from forged material. Diferences between process outputs such as chip morphology and cutting forces were studied. Material characteristics such as microstructure, hardness and mechanical properties were also analyzed.

Deliverable, standards, ISO, business models

  • This document extends and updates the content and the scope of Deliverable D6.3 − Report on the business plan of ISO/TC 261 as well as on standards of other ISO and CEN TCs that are relevant for AM technology and the scope of Deliverable D6.5 – Report on proposed extensions to existing standards that are relevant to AM including the opportunity of developing IWA(s) as well as the content of the internal D6.7 preliminary draft that was made available to project stakeholders to update them on the outcomes of the 14th ISO/TC 261 plenary meeting held in Senlis, France on September 2019. The content of this document also includes the outcomes of the 5th CEN/TC 438 plenary meeting held in Frankfurt on November 2019 (with participation of the author by teleconference) and of the outcomes of the series of meetings of ISO/TC 261 held in El Paso, Texas between February 10 and February 14, 2020 with the physical participation of the author of this document. PARADDISE project representatives are very actively participating to the work ISO/TC 261 Technical Committee including all its Working Groups and including a significant number of Joint ISO/TC 261 – ASTM F42 Groups. The PARADDISE project maintains a liaison with CEN/TC 438 Additive Manufacturing and is very actively participating to its works. This document also includes information related to the resolution of scope conflicts between ISO/TC 261, Additive Manufacturing and ISO/TC 184/SC 1, Physical device control and ISO/TC 184/SC 4, Industrial data as well as information on standards related to AM that are under the jurisdiction of those two ISO/TC 184 subcommittees. Information is also provided on the on going activities of the CEN/TC 54 and CEN/TC 438 JWG 11 addressing special requirements for pressure vessel and components manufactured applying Additive Manufacturing technologies.

Scientific publication, Directed Energy Deposition, continuous nozzle, discrete nozzle, gravity effect, tilting effect, powder, Alloy 718

  • The consequences of gravity and the nozzle inclination angle in the powder-fed Directed Energy Deposition (DED) process were examined in this study. We also sought to define guidelines and manufacturing strategies, depending on the DED system configuration and the nozzle type. To do so, two nozzle types were used: a continuous coaxial nozzle with a slit of 0.5 mm and a four-stream discrete coaxial nozzle. Although the main effects of the configurations and the nozzles are well-known, their effects on the clad characteristics and the deposition strategy are as yet unclear. In this paper, measurements of a single clad and the effects of different deposition strategies on cladding applications and inclined walls are presented, and the consequences for manufacturing processes are discussed. Based on a complete study of a single clad, working vertically, five different tilted deposition strategies were applied: three to a single clad and two to an inclined wall. The results for both the single clad and the inclined wall reflect a pattern of changes to height, width, area, and efficiency, at both small and large nozzle angles and deposition strategies. The inclined wall presents a maximum horizontal displacement that can be reached per layer, without geometrical distortions. The amount of material per layer has to be adapted to this limitation.

LANE2020, Goemetrical model, scientific paper

  • This work presents a geometrical model of coatings fabricated by powder-fed Directed Energy Deposition (DED) and defines guidelines and manufacturing strategies for multilayered structures based on the geometrical model results. This model obtains as output both the overlapped clad geometry and the dilution area of the coating at different input parameters and defines the strategy of multi-layer structures. The results of this work validate the model that comes in handy: a) To understand the influence of each parameter and the single clad geometry when fabricating coatings and structures; b) To select the parameters depending on the requirements of the coating like effective thickness and dilution; c) To detect lack of fusion with the substrate due to an excessive overlap percentage; d) To select the deposition strategy and the tool path for additive manufacturing; e) To select the subsequent machining strategy based on the predicted geometry of the model.

Melt pool, LMD, modeling

  • The melt pool dynamics consideration in the numeric modeling of the Laser Material Deposition (LMD) process can be enormously difficult and expensive, especially if this calculation is not strictly necessary. The increased cost comes mainly from the necessity of considering a higher number of input parameters into the model in addition to the computational cost. Therefore, an analysis of the influence of the melt pool dynamics in a LMD model and its impact on the accuracy is presented. For this purpose, a numeric model that simulates the melt pool fluid-dynamics has been developed and experimentally validated for different situations. After a detailed analysis of the results, an exponential formula based on the response surface methodology (RSM) that quantifies the influence of the fluid-dynamic phenomena inside the melt pool has been obtained. The main conclusion of the present work is that the LMD process can be addresses as a thermal problem without considering the melt pool dynamics and without losing accuracy for a certain window of process parameters, what reduces the computational cost and will allow an easier integration of the model in CAE tools for process simulation.

CAM, Additive Manufacturing, Turbo-machinery

  • Additive Manufacturing (AM) has become a constantly growing up technology due to the suitability and flexibility in terms of geometry and material diversity. It is applied in high value damaged part repairs from aeronautical, medical and molds and die sectors. This paper proposes an Application Programing interface(API) to be implemented in a commercial software (NX-Siemens) with the main objective of covering a full solution to AM simulation challenges. Experimental tests were carried out in a case of study in order to verify the suitability and reliability of the developed API. The selected material (Hastelloy X) is an additional challenge to be faced; some trials were performed to obtain optimal parameters for this material.