OPTIMIZATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF THE LASER METAL DEPOSITION PROCESS APPLIED TO HIGH HARDNESS COATINGS BY THE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF COAXIAL NOZZLES

Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) or laser cladding is a technology capable of coating, repairing and manufacturing components by injecting molten metal powder on a substrate. Some of the advantages of this technology are: wide range of materials available in powder, reduced thermal distortion, coatings and repaired parts of high quality. However, the biggest advantage can be its relative ease of implementation in a multiprocess machine tool and subsequent automatization. The supply of hybrid machines in the world market that implements the LMD process is increasing (IBARMIA, DMG MORI, MAZAK, OKUMA, etc...), making the production more flexible in a single machine and introducing this process in more applications and industrial sectors. However, hybridization also presents problems that are difficult to solve. Some of the most noteworthy are those associated with the use of powdered metallic material both from the point of view of the safety and hygiene of the operators and also of the waste management and integrity of the machine itself, being its most serious effects at lower efficiency of the process. In this article, the study of the efficiency of different LMD nozzles is addressed for the coating of a hardened steel using for it the hybrid multiprocess machine IBARMIA ZVH45 /1600 Add + process, with the aim of finding the most efficient and, therefore (the one that generates less waste) and which, in turn, offers good productivity.